Plastic surgery is a common term for operative manual and instrumental treatment which is performed for functional or aesthetic reasons. And Plastic Surgeons are the messengers carrying out the work of aestheticism. A kind of surgery used in reducing scarring or disfigurement that may occur as a result of accidents, birth defects, or treatment for diseases is called a Plastic Surgery. In these operations doctors surgically restore, reconstruct, correct or improve the shape and appearance of body structures that are defective, damaged or misshapen by injury, disease or growth and development.
The principal areas of plastic surgery include two broad fields:
• Reconstructive surgery, including microsurgery, focuses on undoing or masking the destructive effects of trauma, surgery or disease. Reconstructive surgery may include closing defects using skin grafts or with local, regional or distant flaps—that is, by moving tissue from other parts of the body.
• Cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery is most often performed in order to change features the patient finds unflattering. In many cases, however, there are medical reasons (for example, breast reduction when orthopedic problems are present).
Plastic surgery is a broad field, and may be subdivided further:
Craniofacial surgery mostly revolves around the treatment of pediatric congenital anomalies, such as cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis, and other disturbances in facial growth and development. Because these children have multiple issues, they are often taken care of in an interdisciplinary approach which includes oral surgeons, otolaryngologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, geneticists.
Plastic surgeons receive full training in hand surgery, with some trainees deciding even to do an additional full-year hand fellowship afterwards (this fellowship can also be pursued by general surgeons and orthopedic surgeons). In particular, plastic surgeons receive training in microvascular surgery, which is needed to replant an amputated hand or digit. Many hand operations (such as reconstruction of injuries, replantations, rheumatoid surgery and surgery of congenital defects) are performed by plastic surgeons.
Maxillofacial surgery is surgery of the "maxilla" (which means jaw) and face, and is an important aspect of plastic surgery. This field grew from contributions by both the plastic surgeons and oral surgeons. Examples of repairs here would be traumatic fractures of the jaw and face (such as from fights or vehicle accidents), tumors of the jaw and face.